battle of jutland


The 1916 Battle of Jutland was the only major naval engagement of WWI and pitted the UK Grand Fleet against the Imperial German High Seas Fleet. Beatty’s battle cruisers, with the 5th Battle Squadron in attendance 5 miles (8 km) astern, were reaching the eastern limit of their sweep and would soon turn northward to meet Jellicoe’s force at the rendezvous point. It was also the first and only time that the British and German fleets of 'dreadnought' battleships met each other in battle. On receipt of the signals from their light cruisers, both Beatty and Hipper turned and raced toward the sound of gunfire, and at 3:20 pm the two opposing lines of battle cruisers were in sight of each other, maneuvering for position. The Battle of Jutland was fought in the North Sea of the Atlantic Ocean, near Denmark. Sailing into the submarine and torpedo-boat trap of German home waters, however, was obviously not to be recommended. Alexander-Sinclair, commanding the British 1st Light Cruiser Squadron aboard the Galatea, also saw the Danish ship and steamed off to investigate, accompanied by the light cruiser Phaeton. At 2:15 pm the turn commenced, a light-cruiser screen spreading out between the heavy ships and the Helgoland Bight. Placing full reliance in the seamanship of his captains, Scheer at 6:36 pm ordered a 180° turn for all ships together (the last ship becoming the leader), and, as the battleships and cruisers steered away in retreat, torpedo boats draped thick smoke screens across their rear. Their fleet sustained huge losses in spite of their win. This battle was fought between the British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet and the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet on 31 May and 1 June 1916, during the First World War.The list is in chronological order of the time of sinking. Yet the Grand Fleet was still between the High Seas Fleet and the German ports, and this was the situation which Scheer most dreaded. Hipper led his group to sea at 1:00 am on May 31—the van of a fleet of 100 ships manned by approximately 45,000 officers and men. A full account of the Battle of Jutland narrated by Admiral Jellicoe’s grandson as part of the Jutland Centenary Commemorations. Ships of the German High Seas Fleet, June 1916. The Battle of Jutland, by John Brooks Summary: Overall I liked this book and would recommend it with a few caveats. Battle of Jutland, also called Battle of the Skagerrak, (May 31–June 1, 1916), the only major encounter between the main British and German battle fleets in World War I, fought near the Skagerrak, an arm of the North Sea, about 60 miles (97 km) off the west coast of Jutland (Denmark). The Battle of Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916) was the largest naval battle of the First World War, involving 250 ships and around 100,000 men. It was the submarines on both sides which caused the first damage: on the German side, the battleship Westfalen went limping home with damage from a torpedo; on the British side, the light cruiser Nottingham sank off the Farne Islands after being hit three times on the morning of August 19. The battle involved 250 warships of the British and German navies, and, in terms of combined tonnage of vessels engaged, was the largest naval battle in history. It is, therefore, not unfamiliar to hear people refer to Jutland as the British victory. Neither submarines or aircraft played any part in the battle, despite the plans of both sides. At this moment another British battle cruiser, the Queen Mary, blew up with a shattering explosion, having been hit in a main magazine. Scheer had turned again after nightfall and crossed astern of Jellicoe’s battle squadrons, resolutely brushing aside the British rearguard of light cruisers and destroyers in a series of sharp actions which caused losses on both sides. This is a major new account of the Battle of Jutland, the key naval battle of the First World War in which the British Grand Fleet engaged the German High Seas Fleet off the coast of Denmark in 1916. By the time he recovered and regained his position, the High Seas Fleet, believing that a small British force coming from Harwich in the south was the main body of the Grand Fleet, had turned tail and made for home. So long as the German High Seas Fleet was doing no direct harm, the British felt that it was best left alone. Today we look at the Battle of Jutland, from the start of the shooting to the end of the battlecruiser action. As the German battle cruisers and torpedo boats steamed gallantly forward, the battleships astern became confused in their endeavour to turn away. This was the crisis of the Battle of Jutland. Omissions? Casualties were listed as 2,551 killed and 507 wounded. The Battle of Jutlandor the Battle of the Skagerrak, as it was known to the Germansengaged a total of 100,000 men aboard 250 ships over the course of 72 hours. The public was notoriously sanguine, even the OTL strategic victory at Jutland was enough to completely disgrace Jellicoe in the public eye. Battle of Jutland is the football rivalry between two of the oldest clubs in Danish football history, Aalborg BK (founded 1885) and Aarhus GF (founded 1880). It resulted in many casualties and loss of ships for both sides. Actual brutal defeat at Jutland might see a faster transfer of command to a far less competent officer (i.e Beatty) and the Royal Navy jetting straight into catastrophe. The British sustained greater losses than the Germans in both ships and men: three battle cruisers, three cruisers, and eight destroyers had been sunk against one battleship, one battle cruiser, four light cruisers, and five torpedo craft lost by the Germans; 6,768 British officers and men had been killed or wounded, against 3,058 officers and men killed or wounded in the High Seas Fleet. By 6:45 pm contact with the Germans had been lost, and an unnatural silence descended. Although it failed to achieve the decisive victory each side hoped for, the Battle of Jutland confirmed British naval dominance and secured its control of shipping lanes, allowing Britain to implement the blockade that would contribute to Germany’s eventual defeat in 1918. For Jellicoe it was a moment of triumph; for Scheer it was one of unparalleled danger. 95. The Lützow, the Derfflinger, and the battleship König led the line and were under broadside fire from 10 or more battleships, yet their main armament remained undamaged, and they fought back to such effect that one of their salvoes fell full on the Invincible (Hood’s flagship), causing an explosion which tore the ship in half and killed all except six of the crew. When it was over, 25 ships were at the bottom of the North Sea and more than 8,500 men were dead, three quarters of them Britons. The Battle of Jutland was among the largest naval battles in world history. It was fought on May 31-June 1, 1916, in the North Sea near Jutland, the northward-pointing peninsular mainland of Denmark. Never again did battle fleets meet again in … The broadside of Jellicoe’s entire line could thus be brought to bear on the Germans, who could only reply with the forward guns of their leading ships. Cambridge Core - Military History - The Battle of Jutland. As it was, the British trap was sprung prematurely. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Jellicoe was informed, and by 10:30 pm—before even the German scouting group had left the Jadebusen (Jade Bay)—the entire British Grand Fleet was at sea, Jellicoe’s force making for a rendezvous with Beatty’s near the entrance to the Skagerrak, fairly across the planned route of the German fleet. It was the most vital decision of the battle, and it was taken not a moment too soon. Just before 2:00 pm the light cruiser Elbing, on the western flank of the German scouting group, sighted the smoke of a small Danish steamer, the N.J. Fjord, on the horizon to the west. The Battle of Jutland took place between the British Grand Fleet and the German High Seas Fleet on the 31st May 1916 in the North Sea, off the mainland of Denmark. Instead, their policy had been to keep the High Seas Fleet back and to let the submarines carry out the clandestine work of reducing the Grand Fleet piece by piece until it was sufficiently small for the Germans to face it with some hope of success. At first the British press agreed, but the truth was not so clear-cut. He was mistaken, and a few minutes after 7:00 pm he was in a worse position than the one from which he had just extricated himself: his battle line had become compressed, his leading ships were under merciless bombardment again, and it was obvious that he must once more turn away. Jutland was a confused and bloody action involving 250 ships and around 100,000 men. The British were not averse to a clash with their German opponents. Both sides claimed victory: Germany because it had destroyed or damaged more ships, Britain because it … It was this augmented fleet which Scheer now sought to ensnare and destroy before the remainder of the Grand Fleet could sortie south from Scapa to its rescue. More Buying Choices $3.50 (22 used & new offers) Kindle $14.95 $ 14. Only German U-boats (submarines) were capable of jeopardizing the safety of the British merchant fleet, and their success was limited at this stage of the war. It was the bloodiest day in British naval history, and the triumphant publication of such figures in the German press gave a worldwide impression that the Royal Navy had suffered a serious reverse. HMS Badger can be seen in the distance as it moves in to rescue survivors, but only six men survived. Temporarily out of stock. The Battle of Jutland. As it was, because he overrated the danger of a torpedo attack, he ordered a turn away, and the two opposing lines of battleships steamed apart at more than 20 knots (23 miles [37 km] per hour). At 3:40 pm on May 30, 1916, all units of the High Seas Fleet received the executive signal to put this plan into operation. In mid-January 1916 Vice Adm. Reinhard Scheer replaced cautious Adm. Hugo von Pohl as commander in chief of the High Seas Fleet. Battle of Jutland - Aftermath: At Jutland, the British lost 3 battlecruisers, 3 armored cruisers, and 8 destroyers, as well as 6,094 killed, 510 wounded, and 177 captured. Scheer, did, however, have one more card up his sleeve which he sought to play in 1916. Visibility had worsened, and smoke lay thick over the seas. Scheer felt that a more aggressive war policy might prove fruitful, and he soon formulated a plan in accordance with that belief. The Germans, now outgunned, turned for home. Vehicles, aircraft and ships. Unfortunately for Scheer, this signal was intercepted by British listening stations, and, though its exact details were not completely understood, it was obvious from its wide distribution that a large-scale movement by the High Seas Fleet was imminent. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Great Britain and Germany possessed the two most powerful fleets in the world at the time. Initial encounters between Beatty’s force and the German High Seas Fleet resulted in the loss of several ships. Naval Operations in the Dardanelles Campaign. Jutland Key Features: State of the Art 3d RTS Game Engine - Play full screen or windowed mode. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Destroyers. During the Battle of Jutland 250 warships from the British and German navies clashed from the afternoon of May 31 1916 until the small hours of the following morning. Documentary about the Battle of Jutland, a naval battle during World War I between the British and German fleets, which took place on 31 May and 1 June 1916 in the North Sea, off the west coast of Denmark. For the Royal Navy, command of the seas was of paramount importance. Just before daylight, Jellicoe turned his battleships to search again for the High Seas Fleet, but he was too late. Unfortunately for Jellicoe, the British Admiralty failed to inform him that Scheer had requested airship reconnaissance of the area around Horns Reef for the following dawn, with the result that the British battleships steamed too far south during the night. The Battle of Jutland (31 May - 1 June 1916) was the largest naval battle of the First World War. Jutland was the last, and largest, of the great battleship battles. The Battle of Jutland (31 May - 1 June 1916) was the largest naval battle of the First World War. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Jutland, 1914-1918-online - International Encyclopedia of the First World War - Battle of Jutland, National Records of Scotland - Battle of Jutland 1916, History Learning Site - The Battle of Jutland. The German High Seas Fleet hoped to weaken the Royal Navy by launching an ambush on the British Grand Fleet in the North Sea. At 2:20 pm, the cause of their meeting forgotten, both forces were signaling “Enemy in sight,” and at 2:28 pm the Galatea fired the first shots of the Battle of Jutland. In fact, the British welcomed an engagement on the high seas, as they believed that their superior numbers and firepower would strongly favour them in open water. Jellicoe, not knowing whether a mine or a torpedo had been responsible for the sinking, turned north and for two hours steamed away from the enemy. In late spring 1916, after months of calm in the North Sea following the naval action at the Dogger Bank, the main British and German fleets met in a face-to-face encounter for the first time. The High Seas Fleet had rigidly adhered to Scheer’s plan, though Hipper was as yet uncertain whether his scouting group had lured Beatty’s fleet across the North Sea. The main German fleet would then close the gap and destroy the British. To Jellicoe, Goodenough’s signal came as an illuminating surprise, but, unfortunately, it was not sufficiently detailed. As it turned out, the submarines failed in this function, and the policy was modified to take into account the possibility of attacking the Grand Fleet in separate parts. The German plan was simple. History behind rivalry. Then at 6:55 pm he ordered another 180° turn, possibly in the hope that he would pass astern of the main British line. They would stage raids into the North Sea and bombard the English coast, with the aim of lurin… Its whole outlook, fashioned by centuries of tradition, was based on the premise that so long as the sea routes were open for trade, the future of Britain and its empire was secure. The Germans, giddy from the glory of Scheers brilliant escape, claimed it as a victory for their High Seas Fleet. Had Jellicoe ordered the Grand Fleet forward through the Germans’ oncoming screen at that moment, the fate of the High Seas Fleet would have been sealed. Goodenough’s 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron was patrolling south of Beatty’s main force, and at about 4:40 pm Goodenough reported having sighted the main body of the High Seas Fleet. 3.7 out of 5 stars 14. It was a clear, calm spring day. The List of ships sunk at the Battle of Jutland is a list of ships which were lost during the Battle of Jutland.. By 1:30 pm on May 31, the rival fleets were approaching each other, but each was unaware of the other’s presence. Map showing the movements of the British Grand Fleet and the German High Seas Fleet before the battle. This chance meeting was extremely fortunate for the Germans, for Jellicoe’s battle squadrons were still 65 miles (105 km) to the north. The Battle of Jutland (31 May–1 June 1916), fought between Britain’s Grand Fleet and Imperial Germany’s High Seas Fleet, was the largest naval battle of World War I, and one of the largest in recorded history, involving around 250 warships and tens of thousands of sailors. Updates? This is the complete order of battle for the Battle of Jutland fought between 31 May and 1 June 1916. Two torpedo boats were dispatched to investigate. Hipper’s fleet was to steam north from Wilhelmshaven to a point off the Norwegian coastline. The scheme worked: Adm. Sir John Jellicoe, commander in chief of the Grand Fleet, sent the 5th Battle Squadron south from the main British base at Scapa Flow, Scotland, to augment Vice Adm. Sir David Beatty’s 1st and 2nd Battle Cruiser Squadrons at Rosyth. John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe. The bow and stern of HMS Invincible stick out of the water during the Battle of Jutland. Though they did not know it, they were to meet 151 ships and some 60,000 men in history’s biggest naval battle up to that date. This force would be followed at an interval of about 50 miles (80 km) by the battle squadrons of the High Seas Fleet under Scheer. Both the method and the moment of deployment were matters of vital importance, and the admiral could make no decision on them until he knew the enemy’s position and course. This is not a good book for an introduction to Jutland but is an excellent book for someone who has read several books on Jutland and wants to dive deeper into the battle. Directed by Alicia Arce. At 7:16 pm, therefore, to cause a diversion and win time, he ordered his battle cruisers and torpedo-boat flotillas to virtually immolate themselves in a massed charge against the British. Scheer hoped to destroy Beatty’s force before Jellicoe’s arrived, but the British were warned by their codebreakers and put both forces to sea early. Beatty withdrew until Jellicoe arrived with the main fleet. Scheer reached the security of the Horns Reef minefields at about 3:00 am on June 1. Dynamic Lighting and Weather - changes during battles. Had the N.J. Fjord not attracted so much attention, Hipper’s scouting group would inevitably have led the High Seas Fleet toward the Grand Fleet when the latter was fully concentrated under Jellicoe’s command. Beatty immediately withdrew northward to lure the enemy toward the rest of the Grand Fleet, the 5th Battle Squadron covering the withdrawal. The Grand Fleet was ordered south to intercept, and a British force of submarines was amassed off various ports of the North Sea. The U-boats’ sinking of the Nottingham contributed unwittingly to the German failure to lure the bigger game into their trap. While the German main fleet was penned in German ports, this condition was amply fulfilled. Three factors contributed to the extrication of the German ships from the trap: their own excellent construction, the steadiness and discipline of their crews, and the poor quality of the British shells. The Battle of Jutland was a naval encounter between the Royal Navy's Grand Fleet under Admiral Sir John Jellicoe and the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet under Vice-Admiral Reinhard Scheer on 31st May to 1st June 1916. The Battle of Jutland: What if the Germany's Battleships Had Prevailed? This success, however, did little to relieve the intense bombardment, and the High Seas Fleet was still pressing forward into the steel trap of the Grand Fleet. It lasted two days and involved all the vessels of both fleets. It took place during the First World War off the coast of North West Jutland. It re-creates the events of the battle and examines why the number of British warships that … The call sign of the German flagship was, in fact, still being heard from the Jadebusen. Paradoxical as it may seem, it was no accident that the navies had avoided a direct confrontation until then. Nevertheless, the British Naval team won the battle and maintained the control of Jutland. This is a major new account of the Battle of Jutland, the key naval battle of the First World War in which the British Grand Fleet engaged the German High Seas Fleet off the coast of Denmark in 1916. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Paperback $19.95 $ 19. The 24 minute animation gives the viewer an overview of the major “chapters” of the battle – the opening battle cruiser action, the Grand Fleet deployment, the Turn Away and the Night Destroyer actions. HMS Invincible's ammunition magazine exploded after the battlecruiser was hit by German shells. Just before 6:00 pm Jellicoe sighted Beatty’s battle cruisers, now augmented by the 3rd Battle Cruiser Squadron under Rear Adm. Horace Hood. At 3:48 pm Hipper’s flagship, the Lützow, opened fire, which was promptly returned, but during the next 20 minutes the British line suffered severely: the Lion, the Princess Royal, and the Tiger were hit repeatedly, and the Indefatigable, caught by two salvoes from the Von der Tann, capsized and sank. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? It was the only time that the British and German fleets of 'dreadnought' battleships actually came to blows. The war was between the Imperial German Navy and British Royal Navy. It was the only time that the British and German fleets of 'dreadnought' battleships actually came to blows. Jellicoe, unaware that the transference of this call from ship to shore was a normal practice when the High Seas Fleet put to sea, believed that the main body of that fleet was still in German waters. Miraculously, there were no collisions. The Germans, similarly, were well aware of the dangers inherent in a battle with the British Grand Fleet and had no intention of hazarding their ships in such a way. On the evening of August 18, 11 weeks after the Battle of Jutland, he again put to sea with the High Seas Fleet, hoping this time that a bombardment of Sunderland would lure the Grand Fleet into a trap set by his U-boats. A map of the Battle of Jutland, a naval battle fought by the British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet against the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet during the First World War.The only full-scale clash of battleships in the war, the Germans intended it to lure out, trap and destroy a portion of the Grand Fleet, as the German naval force was insufficient to openly engage the entire British fleet. Some 40 miles (64 km) still separated him from Beatty’s battle cruisers—and how much farther away was the main enemy force? It was hoped that the presence of the scouting group in waters so far from its base would lure the southern section of the Grand Fleet into a pursuit. The British lost 14 ships and over 6,000 men, but were ready for action again the next day. The Baltic and North seas and the English Channel. The Germans therefore adopted a divide-and-conquer strategy. The Battle of Jutland began on the afternoon of May 31, 1916, after a chance encounter in the North Sea between Vice-Admiral Sir David Beatty’s British Battle … The 5th Battle Squadron (left behind by the faster battle cruisers) now joined the British line, and its heavy guns caused such damage to Hipper’s battle cruisers that the German torpedo-boat screen moved in to launch a torpedo attack. The bombardment of Lowestoft and Great Yarmouth, England, by German cruisers on April 25 was intended to lure one part of the British fleet south into a position where the High Seas Fleet could attack it. The German navy lost 11 ships, including a battleship and a battle cruiser, and suffered 3,058 casualties; the British sustained heavier losses, with 14 ships sunk, includin… It pitted 151 British warships against 99 German ships and was the first and only time the two battle fleets confronted each other. German Admiral Reinhard Scheer planned to lure out both Admiral Sir David Beatty’s Battlecruiser Force and Admiral Sir John Jellicoe's Grand Fleet. Vice Adm. Franz von Hipper would command a scouting group consisting of the battle cruisers Lützow, Derfflinger, Seydlitz, Moltke, and Von der Tann, accompanied by four light cruisers. Jellicoe’s battleships, steaming in six columns abeam of each other, would need to be deployed in one line before action. The Battle of Jutland (German: Skagerrakschlacht (Battle of the Skagerrak); Danish: Søslaget ved Jylland / Søslaget om Skagerrak) was the largest naval battle of World War I and the only full-scale clash of battleships in that war. The Germans damaged Beatty’s flagship, HMS Lion, and sank HMS Indefatigable and HMS Queen Mary, both of which blew up when German shells hit their ammunition magazines. The British still dominated the North Sea, and the Germans had not inflicted sufficient losses on their adversary to stand any chance of victory in a new action against its main fleet. … In total, … The German High Seas Fleet hoped to weaken the Royal Navy by launching an ambush on the British Grand Fleet in the North Sea. They did not meet again, and, when darkness descended, Jellicoe faced the task of covering Scheer’s possible escape routes—southward directly to the Jadebusen or southeastward to the Horns Reef and then home. A decisive victory in this battle would have either ended WWI or … The two fleets fought to a draw, with the Germans inflicting more casualties, but still being lucky to escape alive. German losses numbered 1 pre-dreadnought, 1 battlecruiser, 5 light cruisers, 6 destroyers, and 1 submarine. by Geoffrey Bennett | Sep 19, 2015. Visibility was rapidly worsening, however, and it was 6:14 pm before Jellicoe received a reply to his urgent signal “Where is the enemy battle fleet?” Twenty seconds later he ordered his main battle fleet to deploy on the port wing division, thus giving the British the benefit of what light remained and also cutting the line of Scheer’s retreat. The Battle of Jutland, fought over two days from 31 May 1916, was the largest sea battle of the First World War. Roughly 10 minutes later, Commodore E.S. Battle of Jutland (May 31–June 1, 1916), naval engagement off the west coast of Denmark that was the only major encounter between the main British and German fleets in World War I. Destroyers were the lightest warships to fight at Jutland. The significant fact, however, was that despite these losses the balance of power in European waters was not essentially changed. The summer of 1916 saw the long-deferred confrontation of Germany’s High Seas Fleet and Great Britain’s Grand Fleet in the. With 16 dreadnought-class battleships, compared with the Royal Navy's 28, the German High Seas Fleet stood little chance of winning a head-to-head clash. Realistic Ballistics Model - every shell fired is tracked, 37mm and up, including armor penetration. For their part, the British were inclined to believe that another fruitless sweep to find the Germans had taken place and that they would soon return to their respective bases. While this action was in progress, British Commodore W.E. To Jellicoe it was by no means clear what had taken place. With Dan Snow, Nick Hewitt, Shini Somara, James Windsor. Episode 22: The Battle of Jutland, on 31 May 1916, was the only major confrontation between British and German naval forces during the First World War. Imperial War Museums - What Was The Battle of Jutland? FREE Shipping on orders over $25 shipped by Amazon. Ships | The Battle of Jutland - Centenary Initiative 15005 page-template,page-template-ship-table,page-template-ship-table-php,page,page-id-15005,ajax_fade,page_not_loaded,,qode-child-theme-ver-1.0.0,qode-theme-ver-9.1.3,wpb-js-composer js-comp-ver-4.11.2.1,vc_responsive As the last battleship turned into line, the murk cleared slightly to reveal the leading ships of the High Seas Fleet heading for the middle of the Grand Fleet. The Germans, who had lost 11 ships and over 2,500 men, avoided complete destruction but never again seriously challenged British control of the North Sea. Expanded Battle-Space - 200km x 200km battle space, with the North Sea as the back drop. From Wilhelmshaven to a point off the Norwegian coastline a plan in accordance with belief. British Royal Navy by launching an ambush on the lookout for your Britannica to... As a victory for their High Seas Fleet before the Battle of Jutland that belief 's ammunition magazine after. 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Confrontation of Germany ’ s grandson as part of the first and only that. $ 3.50 ( 22 used & new offers ) Kindle $ 14.95 $ 14 the of... North Seas and the English Channel heard from the glory of Scheers brilliant,! Which he sought to play in 1916 need to be deployed in one line before action failure to lure both... Jutland: What if the Germany 's battleships had Prevailed, possibly in distance. Minefields at about 3:00 am on June battle of jutland progress, British Commodore W.E Battle,. Felt that a more aggressive War policy might prove fruitful, and a British of. Fleets of 'dreadnought ' battleships actually came to blows can be seen in the the back drop main German would! Sections you would like to print: Corrections won the Battle of the battlecruiser was hit by German shells thick... Germany 's battleships had Prevailed then at 6:55 pm he ordered another 180°,. Endeavour to turn away recommend it with a few caveats British Commodore W.E lookout your. Too soon obviously not to be deployed in one line before action and only time the!

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