Images of serpents have been represented in Mesoamerican art since Olmec times, and we know that they are related to fertility and the earth. Why did Quetzalcoatl have so many guises? 89r (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 13: Bust of Quetzalcoatl, British Museum, Pic 14: Quetzalcoatl mask, British Museum (Click on image to enlarge). Guises: Ehécatl (Wind) / Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli (Venus), Xolotl (the dog twin or ‘double’ of Quetzalcoatl), and the mythical human priest, Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl.Emblem: A half-conch, symbol of creation.Active: The Feathered Serpent was represented as a deity in Mesoamerica from the Pre-classic period until the conquest in 1521.Favourite Colour: Blue and Black (Ehécatl) or Red and White pinstripe (Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli). Containing a round temple dedicated to the cult of Quetzalcoatl-Ehécatl, Cholula was considered a pilgrimage destination across Central Mexico. Quetzalcoatl (Nahuatl Quetzalcōātl = „Quetzalschlange“ bzw. Whether the historical figure of Ce Acatl Topiltzin did this, or whether it was the deity Feathered Serpent, we know that Quetzalcoatl was worshipped throughout Mesoamerica up until the conquest in 1521, and that the Aztecs appeared to combine Quetzalcoatl the priest with the deity.Find out how Tezcatlipoca got the better of Topiltzin by following the link below. In another story, the virgin Chimalman conceived Quetzalcoatl swallowing an emerald. These myths often describe him as the a divine ruler of the mythical Toltecs of Tollan who after his expulsion from Tollan, travelled south or east to set up new cities and kingdoms. The gods Oxomoco and Cipactonal throw lots with grains of corn, Codex Borbonicus ( Mexico Lore ) Another type of corn story comes from the Ojibwa people of southern Canada and the northern United States in the Great Lakes Region. He was a creator deity having contributed essentially to the creation of Mankind. A feathered serpent deity has been worshiped by many different ethno-political groups in Mesoamerican history. Quetzalcoatl is a … Chaque combat mettait fin à l'une des quatre époques de l'his Dans de nombreuses versions du mythe, Quetzalcoatl a travaillé en opposition à son frère Tezcatlipoca. It is in this period that the deity is known to have been named "Quetzalcoatl" by his Nahua followers. Para los aztecas, Quetzalcoatl era, como su nombre indica, una serpiente emplumada, un reptil volador (muy parecido a un dragón), que era un constructor de límites (y transgresor) entre la tierra y el cielo. Readers will find this month's special topic mouth-watering! Called ehecacózcatl (wind jewel), the shell has been interpreted as an association with the womb and the generation of life. 22 (Click on image to enlarge) In another act as creator, Quetzalcoatl threw his semen at a rock and from it grew a bat that approached the fertility goddess Xochiquetzal (Quetzal Flower), biting her between the legs. They discussed the Eyrbggia saga in the epilogue. Quetzalcoatl, le dieu aztèque et toltèque; le serpent emplumé, dieu du vent, l’apprentissage et le sacerdoce, maître de la vie, créateur et civilisateur, patron de chaque art et inventeur de la métallurgie, dans le Codex Borbonicus. Cholula is known to have remained the most important center of worship to Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec/Nahua version of the feathered serpent deity, in the post-classic period. La première mention de son existence date de 1778 : il se trouve alors à la Bibliothèque de l’Escurial en Espagne . The conch shell is symbolic of the ancestral bones from which Quetzalcoatl created humankind as we know it. When the brothers separated the sky from the earth, they even turned into the trees that held the two apart, earnings the names of Quetzalhuéxotl and Tezcacahuitl.Quetzalcoatl’s life-giving ability gave rise to many of the things around us. No accounts written by the Aztecs agree with Cortés and his men, and Professor Felipe Fernández-Armesto tells us why (follow the link below...), This article was uploaded to the Mexicolore website on Aug 31st 2013, (Written/compiled by Julia Flood/Mexicolore). Jörmungandr. Codex Borbonicus fol. The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. Saved by Annelies ter Brugge * Cette présentation a été écrite avec Loïc Vauzelle (EPHE, GSRL). So the combination of quetzalli "precious feather" and coatl "snake" has often been interpreted as signifying a serpent with the feathers of Quetzal. Sahagún (Book III, chapter III) also made special mention of their devotion to him. The Aztec Codex Borbonicus, 'Tonalamatl', detail depicting Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca was created around the 16th century. Temple of the Feathered Serpent at Xochicalco, adorned with a fully zoomorphic feathered Serpent. He was a creator deity … Guess how many feathers went into making this shield? He was also the patron god of the Aztec priesthood, of learning and knowledge. Franciscans then equated the original Quetzalcoatl with St. Thomas and imagined that the Indians had long awaited his return to take part once again in God's kingdom. Historian Enrique Florescano also analysing Teotihuacan iconography shows that the Feathered Serpent was part of a triad of agricultural deities: the Goddess of the Cave symbolizing motherhood, reproduction and life, Tlaloc, god of rain, lightning and thunder and the feathered serpent, god of vegetational renewal. Florentine Codex Book 3 (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 4: Mexica doctors performing a ceremony in tribute to Quetzalcoatl (pictured). His names outside the Aztec cultural area include Kukulcán, Gucumatz and Votan. Borbonicus codex. He was a creator deity having contributed essentially to the creation of Mankind. Franciscans such as Toribio de Benavente "Motolinia" saw elements of Christianity in the precolumbian religions and therefore believed that Mesoamerica had been evangelized before, possibly by St. Thomas whom legend had it had "gone to preach beyond the Ganges". Quetzalcoatl, also known as Feathered Serpent, was a prominent supernatural entity or deity found in many Mesoamerican religions. Quetzalcoatl is not a religious symbol in the Mormon faith, and is not taught as such, nor is it in their doctrine. This saga mentions two possible Vikings w… Did Motecuhzoma really think Cortés was a god? Discover (and save!) (Reproduction, late 20th century) Original image, pigment on handmade paper Reproduction, bronze and paint on wood, L. 13 cm x W. 1.5 cm x H. 12 cm BFPC collection #2012.41a. And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca, known by no other name than Tezcatlipoca, the god of judgment, night, deceit, sorcery and the Earth. Home talk among the Aztecs revolved around anything but blood... Browse through photos snapped in recent schools... There’s only one Aztec drawing of the (fig) paper tree. 144,768,668 stock photos online. Quetzalcoatl’s link to erudition and religious dedication ensured his worship across Mesoamerica, and some priests of high rank were anointed with his name. your own Pins on Pinterest The M… During the epi-classic period, a dramatic spread of feathered serpent iconography is evidenced throughout Mesoamerica, and during this period begins to figure prominently at cites such as Chichén Itzá, El Tajín, and throughout the Maya area. As humans, Tezcatlipoca’s trickery thwarted the priest Quetzalcoatl (myth of Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl). English: The Codex Borbonicus is an aztec codex held at the library of the Français: Le Codex Borbonicus est un codex aztèque conservé à. „leuchtende Schwanzfederschlange“; Mayathan bzw. Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Magliabechiano. Codex Borgia Codex Borbonicus Toltecatl . His hair is red and his body painted with red and white stripes. Entre los aztecas, e… Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Borbonicus. 22 (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 8: Bust of Quetzalcoatl (R), British Museum; drawing of Quetzalcoatl-Ehécatl (R) based on the Codex Borbonicus (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 9: Quetzalcoatl-Tlahuizpantecuhtli, god of Venus. It is also suggested that he was a son of Xochiquetzal and Mixcoatl. Over the East presides the Red Tezcatlipoca, Xipe Totec, the god of gold, farming and Spring time. Quetzalcoatl, the Toltec and Aztec god; the plumed serpent, god of the wind, learning and the priesthood, master of life, creator and civiliser, patron of every art and inventor of metallurgy, in the Codex Borbonicus. The Nuevo Laredo International Airport (NLD) in Taumilaupas, Mexico, was also known as the Quetzalcoatl International Airport. Veri Selene Gods had nahualis, just like people, and the main figure of image 3 is Xolotl, the dog nahuali of Quetzalcoatl. Représentation de Quetzalcoatl dans le Codex Magliabechiano. Codex Borbonicus/Aztec. Top-ranking priests from Tenochtitlan were awarded the name of Quetzalcoatl, and Aztec leaders, upon coming into power, were obliged to first worship at the temple at Cholula (Florescano 2001, p.237). Used for divination, these documents were called Tonalamame (sing. Codex Féjervary Mayer, fol.35 (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 12: Quetzalcoatl (upper right). Courtesy of the Newberry Library, Chicago Codex Borbonicus. You can see from the mural pictured here (pic 1) that he was represented in Cacaxtla (east of Mexico City) around 600 AD... ... and Teotihuacan around 200 AD (pic 2). 10. Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Borbonicus. Image of Ehécatl Quetzalcoatl from the Codex Borbonicus Aztec culture Original image, 1325-1521 C.E. codices. Códices Indigenas Mexicanos . A feathered serpent deity has been worshiped by many different ethno-political groups in Mesoamerican history. Although probably not exactly a depiction of the same feathered serpent deity worshipped in classic and post-classic periods, it shows the continuity of symbolism of feathered snakes in Mesoamerica from the formative period and on, for example in comparison to the Mayan Vision Serpent shown below. However, Quetzalcoatl had another invocation that would help Venus through the underworld as the Evening Star: Xolotl, the dog (pic 10). Quetzalcoatl-Ehécatl the RoadsweeperThe Aztecs believed that Quetzalcoatl was one of four creators made by the divine dual couple, Ometeotl. The name Quetzalcoatl literally means "feathered snake". He was regarded as the god of winds and rain … Vision Serpent depicted on lintel 15 from Yaxchilan. Coyotlinahual, le plumassier, procède donc à embellir Quetzalcoatl : The Codex Borbonicus is the best preserved, most artistically developed and generally agreed to be the most pleasing (to Western art specialists) of the Aztec calendar-manuscripts that exist today. Pre-Columbian's Aztec Codex Borbonicus, 'Tonalamatl', detail depicting Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca located at the Bibliotheque de l'Assemblee Nationale, Paris, France. Geschichte der Neuzeit bis’ , in 1789. Over time, Quetzalcoatl's appearance, clothing, malevolent nature, and status among the gods were reshaped to fit a more Christian framework. It is named after the Palais Bourbon in France and kept at the Bibliothèque de l'Assemblée Nationale in Paris. Like all pre-Columbian Aztec codices, it was originally pictorial in nature, although some Spanish descriptions were later added. His calendrical name was 9 Wind.Parents: The dual creator Ometeotl (Two Lord), also known as Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl (Two Lord and Two Lady)Siblings: Tezcatlipoca and Camaxtle. Marduk Quetzalcoatl is a Mesoamerican deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "feathered serpent". One of the main functions of a calender like that in Codex Borbonicus was to interpret that fate. Edition Larousse in exten-. This is because he dropped, but then saved, the bones of humankind as he tripped over a quail while escaping from the Mictlan (Graulich, 1996). Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca, Codex Borbonicus, Ca XVI century AD. Bringing the ancient Maya ballgame to life, Molluscs were both useful and symbolic in the Mexica empire. Colonial documentary sources from the Maya area frequently speak of the arrival of foreigners from the central Mexican plateau, often led by a man whose name translates as "Feathered Serpent"; it has been suggested that these stories recall the spread of the feathered serpent cult in the epi-classic and early post-classic periods. Latter-day Saint scholar Brant Gardner, after investigating the link between Quetzalcoatl and Jesus, concluded that the association amounts to nothing more than folklore. Bridgeman Art Library / Getty Images The earliest iconographic depiction of the deity is believed to be found on Stela 19 at the Olmec site of La Venta, depicting a serpent rising up behind a person probably engaged in a shamanic ritual. Quetzalcoatl (left) fights Tezcatlipoca, from Codex Borbonicus, Mexico, c.1521. New users enjoy 60% OFF. Various theories about Quetzalcoatl are popular in the New Age movement, especially since the publication of Tony Shearer's 1971 book Lord of the dawn: Quetzalcoatl and the Tree of Life republished also under the title Lord of the dawn: Quetzalcoatl, the plumed serpent of Mexico. The earliest depictions of the feathered serpent deity were fully zoomorphic, depicting the serpent as an actual snake, but already among the Classic Maya the deity began acquiring human features. Mesopotamian equivalent But what were his monster-killing, sky-lifting and star-forming capacities in the face of his sneaky brother Tezcatlipoca? With this appendage he was able to sweep the roads clean before the arrival of the rain gods (pic 5). Quetzalcoatl in human form, from the Codex Borbonicus. Tonalamatl), and displayed the portents of the 260 day lunar calendar known as the Tonalpoualli (Counting of the Days). Codex Borgia Codex Fejérváry-Mayer Codex Ríos National Museum of Anthropology Tlaltecuhtli . The cosmic battle between the two brothers has been interpreted as a dualistic opposition between creative and destructive forces (Taube, 1993, p82). Why did Quetzalcoatl have so many guises?We know him as the Plumed Serpent but Quetzalcoatl was so much more! p. 529 Wikipédia Wikimédia One Aztec story claims that Quetzalcoatl was tricked by Tezcatlipoca into becoming drunk and sleeping with a celibate priestess (in some accounts, his sister Quetzalpetlatl) and then burned himself to death out of remorse. Mar 14, 2019 - This Pin was discovered by Maria Felix Banda. After many trials and tribulations he was able to escape Mictlan and carry the bones to Tamoanchan, home of the gods. Bird, Snake, Dog, Wind, Priest, Roadsweeper... even Planet! The noise from the great market could be heard miles away... How did Aztecs become Christians after the Conquest? Other parties have also promulgated the idea that the Mesoamericans believed the conquistadors, and in particular Cortés, to be awaited gods: most notably the historians of the Franciscan order such as Fray Gerónimo de Mendieta. One of the main functions of a calender like that in Codex Borbonicus was to interpret that fate. The highest level of the town is crowned by the pyramid of Quetzalcóatl with impressive inscriptions and figures. Lighting a fire on the top of a mountain gave out an ancient signal. He is the god of intelligence and self-reflection, a patron of priests. De la cultura azteca; Quetzalcóatl como se representa en el Codex Borbonicus. Quetzalcoatl, the Mexican god of wind and learning, wearing around his neck the sign of the wind god, the “wind breastplate” ehecailacocozcatl, “the spirally voluted wind jewel” made of a conch shell (illustration copied from the Codex Borbonicus, p. 22 by Milwaukee Public Museum artist Lee Tishler). On the basis of the Teotihuacan iconographical depictions of the feathered serpent, archaeologist Karl Taube has argued that the feathered serpent was a symbol of fertility and internal political structures contrasting with the War Serpent symbolizing the outwards military expansion of the Teotihuacan empire. Quetzalcoatl was also the patron of the priests and the title of the twin Aztec high priests. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca, Codex Borbonicus, Ca XVI century AD. Mayahuel was the Aztec goddess of maguey or agave (Agave americana), a cactus plant native to Mexico, and the goddess of pulque, an alcoholic drink made from agave juices.She is one of several goddesses who protect and support fertility in its different guises. He was a flying reptile (much like a dragon ), who was a boundary-maker (and transgressor) between earth and sky. In a version of the myth, Quetzalcoatl was born by a virgin named Chimalman, to whom the god Onteol appeared in a dream. Two of these codices are known as the Codex Borgia and the Codex Borbonicus, which are likely Pre-Columbian books made in the early 16 th century on traditional Aztec handmade paper. This image from the sixteenth century Codex Borbonicus (pic 8, right) shows his conical hat made from the fur of an Ocelot. También tenía formas antropomórficas, por ejemplo en sus apariencia como Ehecatl el creador del viento. Jan 22, 2020 - Aztec Codex Borbonicus, "Tonalamatl", Detail Depicting Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca Giclee Print. In another act as creator, Quetzalcoatl threw his semen at a rock and from it grew a bat that approached the fertility goddess Xochiquetzal (Quetzal Flower), biting her between the legs. Quetzalcoatl (left) as depicted in the ancient Mesoamerican Codex Borbonicus. General Information To the Aztecs, Quetzalcoatl was, as his name indicates, a feathered serpent, a flying reptile (much like a dragon), who was a boundary-maker (and transgressor) between earth and sky. Codex Maglabechiano, fol. The Codex Borbonicus is thought to be the only one whose style matches the pre -Conquest Náhuatl style, nevertheless it is considered to be a colonial copy. Species Quetzalcoatl also shared a special bond with medical practitioners (pic 4), who would invoke the memory of this god when setting broken bones. Legend says that Ce Acatl Topiltzin and the Toltecs left Tula after being tricked and shamed by Quetzalcoatl’s brother, the deity Tezcatlipoca. The worship of Quetzalcoatl sometimes included animal sacrifices, and in colonial traditions Quetzalcoatl was said to oppose human sacrifice. This last period was considered to bring bad luck because it was represented by Quetzalcoatl in his forceful guise of Wind. 2014-11-23 - --Page 22-- Codex Borbonicus (Loubat 1899) Quetzalcoatl (L) Much of the idea of Cortés' being seen as a deity can be traced back to the Florentine Codex written down some 50 years after the conquest. Entwined in the annals of history, both god and historical figure became one. Codex Borbonicus is written by Aztec priests sometime after the Spanish conquest of Mexico. Some Franciscans at this time held millennarian beliefs and some of them believed that Cortés' coming to the New World ushered in the final era of evangelization before the coming of the millennium. This speech, which has been widely referred to, has been a factor in the widespread belief that Moctezuma was addressing Cortés as the returning god Quetzalcoatl. They are widely perceived to have spread an active cult of Quetzalcoatl as far south as El Salvador.Parallel to this historic account of Toltec civilization, the Aztecs recorded the myth that the Toltecs were led by a charismatic priest, Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl (1 Reed Our Lord Quetzalcoatl) (pic 3). Quetzalcóatl was the god of the morning and evening star. He ground the bones and mixed them with his blood, creating the first humans of the 5th (and current) sun. Codex Magliabechiano, fol. From her wound burst beautiful flowers that the bat took to the lord of the underworld, Mictlantecuhtli, who bathed them in the water of his subterranean rivers and perfumed the blossoms.Many other creation myths revolve around Quetzalcoatl, some including the creation of the maguey plant, and the discovery of corn (follow the link below...). Monolithic sculpture Tlazolteotl . In the Maya area he was approximately equivalent to Kukulcan and Gukumatz, names that also roughly translate as "feathered serpent" in different Mayan languages. Detail from the Codex Borbonicus, showing Quetzalcoatl, the mythical Aztec feather serpent. In some incredible escapades, they created the earth, sea and night sky and were regents of the first two ‘suns’, or world eras of the existing five. He appears in Post-classic tales from the Maya, Toltec, and Aztec cultures. Over the South presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli, the god of war. Bird, Snake, Dog, Wind, Priest, Roadsweeper... even Planet! 78r (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 5: Quetzalcóatl-Ehécatl. Xolotl, the Evening StarTlahuizcalpentecuhtli could only guard the sun as it crossed the daytime sky. On the basis of the iconography of the feathered serpent deity at sites such as Teotihuacan, Xochicalco, Chichén Itzá, Tula and Tenochtitlan combined with certain ethnohistorical sources, historian David Carrasco has argued that the preeminent function of the feathered serpent deity throughout Mesoamerican history was as the patron deity of the Urban center, a god of culture and civilization. File:Xochicalco Serpiente Emplumada GR.jpg, https://mythology.wikia.org/wiki/Quetzalcoatl?oldid=118623. Reproduction / Poster: Pre-Columbian "Aztec Codex Borbonicus, 'Tonalamatl', detail depicting Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca" - Affiche, Reproduction artistique de haute qualité, 55x40 cm: Amazon.fr: Cuisine & Maison Usually our current time was considered the fifth sun, the previous four having been destroyed by flood, fire and the like. L'embaumement du corps. Quetzalcoatl, however, had feathers and this made him an altogether different being. Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Magliabechiano. Quetzalcoatl in human form, using the symbols of Ehecatl, from the Codex Borgia. Courtesy of the Newberry Library, Chicago Learn about this topic in these articles: LDS Church President John Taylor wrote: The story of the life of the Mexican divinity, Quetzalcoatl, closely resembles that of the Savior; so closely, indeed, that we can come to no other conclusion than that Quetzalcoatl and Christ are the same being. (Mediation and Atonement, p. 100% satisfaction guaranteed. It is a matter of much debate among historians to which degree, or whether at all, these narratives about this legendary Toltec ruler describe historical events. Codex Borbonicus : Xipe. Most documents expounding this theory are of entirely Spanish origin, such as Cortés's letters to Charles V of Spain, in which Cortés goes to great pains to present the naïve gullibility of the Aztecs in general as a great aid in his conquest of Mexico. Beginning in the 14th century the American Indian people known as the Aztec ruled a large empire based in what is now Mexico City, Mexico. To both Teotihuacan and Mayan cultures, Venus was in turn also symbolically connected with warfare. Did Motecuhzoma really think Cortés was a god?The final twist in Quetzalcoatl’s story came with the arrival of the Spanish conquerors, who claimed that Cortés was welcomed as the long-departed Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl who, in another story, did not kill himself but left on a long voyage over the ocean, promising one day to return. La page 14 du Codex Borbonicus représente le dieu Xipe Totec, « Notre seigneur l’écorché », qui incarne le printemps et le renouveau de la végétation. Timeline of key events in the history of the Aztec Empire. A recurring feature in Quetzalcoatl-Ehécatl’s iconography is a conch chest ornament. One of them is the Codex Borgia, an Aztec manuscript made during the late Post-Classic period, which stretched from about 1250 until about 1521. That period lies within the Late Preclassic to Early Classic period of Mesoamerican chronology, and veneration of the figure appears to have spread throughout Mesoamerica by the Late Classic. 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